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Each of the five clades differs from each other by as much as 35%.In the September 1, 1998 issue of Nature Medicine, F.
Both Korber's and Vandamme's analyses find that argument of origin to be a very low probability event, hence quite unlikely.
All retroviruses contain the genes gag (codes for internal structural proteins and capsid proteins using about 2000 base pairs), pol (codes for the three enzymes necessary for replication using about 2900 bp), and env (codes for the surface proteins gp120 and gp41 that protrude from the lipid envelope and attach to cellular receptors using about 1800 bp).
Other genes within HIV are tat (The term gp# stands for glycoprotein of molecular weight # kilo Daltons.
Antibodies to SIV were found in the victims' blood samples.
They also analyzed blood samples of nearly 400 monkeys and baboons to assess the degree to which their antibodies bind to HIV.
Several naysayers have claimed that HIV-disease originated or was extended by the purported use of African green monkey kidneys to cultivate Kaprowsky's CHAT polio virus vaccine in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
The author Edward Hooper raised these issues in his book The River published in 1999.As the number of (captive) chimps analyzed has increased the width of the confidence interval has decreased.In the January 18, 2002 issue of Science, Hahn and Shaw reported the first chimp in the wild detected to have an SIV infection. Anne-Mieke Vandamme of the Rega Institute in Belgium headed a group dating the virus using other techniques and concluded that a transfer from animals to humans occurred around 1675 with a confidence interval of between 15.It is claimed that reverse transcriptase, which governs this reaction, introduces a mutation an average of once in every 500010,000 nucleotides; that's one or two per replication cycle for HIV.Successive generations of viral progeny occur, on average, every 2.6 days; that's an average of 140 generations per year.HIV-2 is more similar to SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus) than is HIV-1 and it is much less virulent (usually not resulting in full blown epidemic sprung unannounced upon the world in the early eighties, the oldest verified case dates back to 1959 in Zaire.