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English adopted the French term, but it wasn't until the late 19th century that "algorithm" took on the meaning that it has in modern English.
Instructions are usually assumed to be listed explicitly, and are described as starting "from the top" and going "down to the bottom", an idea that is described more formally by flow of control.Unique to this conception of formalized algorithms is the assignment operation, setting the value of a variable.It derives from the intuition of "memory" as a scratchpad. For some alternate conceptions of what constitutes an algorithm see functional programming and logic programming.'arithmetic'), the Latin word was altered to algorithmus, and the corresponding English term 'algorithm' is first attested in the 17th century; the modern sense was introduced in the 19th century.In English, it was first used in about 1230 and then by Chaucer in 1391.About 825, he wrote a treatise in the Arabic language, which was translated into Latin in the 12th century under the title Algoritmi de numero Indorum.
This title means "Algoritmi on the numbers of the Indians", where "Algoritmi" was the translator's Latinization of Al-Khwarizmi's name.Many computer programs contain algorithms that detail the specific instructions a computer should perform (in a specific order) to carry out a specified task, such as calculating employees' paychecks or printing students' report cards. Stored data are regarded as part of the internal state of the entity performing the algorithm.Thus, an algorithm can be considered to be any sequence of operations that can be simulated by a Turing-complete system. that any procedure which could "naturally" be called effective, can in fact be realized by a (simple) machine. In practice, the state is stored in one or more data structures.So far, this discussion of the formalization of an algorithm has assumed the premises of imperative programming.This is the most common conception, and it attempts to describe a task in discrete, "mechanical" means.Authors who assert this thesis include Minsky (1967), Savage (1987) and Gurevich (2000): Minsky: "But we will also maintain, with Turing . For some such computational process, the algorithm must be rigorously defined: specified in the way it applies in all possible circumstances that could arise.